What is a fold in the gallbladder neck?

In medicine, a Phrygian cap is the folded portion of some gallbladders that resembles the Phrygian cap (a soft conical cap with the top pulled forward, associated in antiquity with the inhabitants of Phrygia, a region of central Anatolia). It is a normal anatomical variant seen in 1-6% of patients.

Is a folded gallbladder normal?


Folds are commonly seen and are normal. Make note if pathology such as calculi are contained within a compartment created by a fold.

What is a junctional fold gallbladder?

Septate gallbladder is an independent entity from the junctional fold, where the gallbladder wall folds on itself. Junctional folds are usually thick and incomplete while septa are thin and may be complete. Gallbladder multiple septa with multiple small polyps and comet tail artifacts can be seen in adenomyomatosis.

What does contracted gallbladder on ultrasound mean?

A contracted gallbladder means that your gallbladder has shrunk in size and may not be visible on an imaging test. This can prevent your gallbladder from properly functioning.

What size of gallbladder stones need surgery?

Conclusions: Patients with at least 1 gallstone smaller than 5 mm in diameter have a more than 4-fold increased risk of presenting with acute biliary pancreatitis. A policy of watchful waiting in such cases is unwarranted.

Can gallbladder issues cause neck pain?

When your gallbladder is inflamed and swollen, it irritates your phrenic nerve. Your phrenic nerve stretches from the abdomen, through the chest, and into your neck. Each time you eat a fatty meal, it aggravates the nerve and causes referred pain in your right shoulder blade.

Does a contracted gallbladder need to be removed?

In some cases, a collapsed gallbladder does not require treatment and will resolve on its own. Treatment options include gallbladder removal surgery, which commonly involves a minimally invasive surgery called laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Less often, doctors perform an open cholecystectomy.

What are the five F’s of gallbladder disease?

The five Fs were a mnemonic device that healthcare providers used in the past to memorize common risk factors for gallbladder disease. The five Fs were: fair, female, fat, fertile and 40. They were based on statistics, but they are controversial today because they add up to a kind of stereotype.

What size should a normal gallbladder be?

The normal adult gallbladder measures from 7-10 cm in length and 3-4 cm in transverse diameter 6. The gallbladder communicates with the rest of the biliary system by way of the cystic duct, with bidirectional drainage of bile to and from the common hepatic duct.

Is a contracted gallbladder serious?

A gallbladder contracting is a normal part of digestion, and it does not cause any serious symptoms.

What causes gallbladder constriction?

Biliary strictures can be caused by: Any damage done to the bile duct (for example, after gallbladder removal surgery) Passage of gallstones to the bile duct. Infection of the bile ducts.

What are the 3 types of gallstones?

There are two types of gallstones: cholesterol and pigment stones. Both types have their own unique epidemiology and risk factors.

What are 3 treatments for gallstones?

Treatment options for gallstones include:

  • Surgery to remove the gallbladder (cholecystectomy). Your doctor may recommend surgery to remove your gallbladder, since gallstones frequently recur.
  • Medications to dissolve gallstones. Medications you take by mouth may help dissolve gallstones.

Can gallbladder affect neck?

What are signs that your gallbladder is not working?

Chronic gallbladder disease can result in digestive issues, such as nausea and vomiting. Additionally, acid reflux and gas may be experienced. An infection of the gallbladder can result in an unexplained fever or chills.

What triggers gallbladder contraction?

Gallbladder contractions are induced by the action of cholecystokinin (CCK), a peptide hormone released by the neuroendocrine cells of the small intestine, on the CCK-A receptors of the interstitial cells of Cajal.

What are 3 symptoms of gallbladder disease?

Symptoms of chronic gallbladder disease include complaints of gas, nausea and abdominal discomfort after meals and chronic diarrhea.


  • Jaundice.
  • Dark urine, lighter stools or both.
  • Rapid heartbeat and abrupt blood pressure drop.
  • Fever, chills, nausea and vomiting, with severe pain in the upper right abdomen.

What are the early warning signs of gallbladder problems?


  • Sudden and rapidly intensifying pain in the upper right portion of your abdomen.
  • Sudden and rapidly intensifying pain in the center of your abdomen, just below your breastbone.
  • Back pain between your shoulder blades.
  • Pain in your right shoulder.
  • Nausea or vomiting.

What is the normal size of the gallbladder on ultrasound?

What is the size of enlarged gallbladder?

The upper limit of the volume of a normal gallbladder in the adult is about 60 ml. Moderate enlargement of up to 200–300 ml is common in surgical practice due to various pathological conditions; in such cases the gallbladder fundus reaches the level of the anterior superior iliac spine.

Why does gallbladder get contracted?

The term “contracted gallbladder” can refer to two different situations. The first occurs following a meal or after maneuvers that cause the muscle of the gallbladder to contract, for example, ingestion of fat or injection intravenously of the hormone that is responsible for causing the gallbladder to contract.

What foods irritate gallstones?


  • meat pies.
  • sausages and fatty cuts of meat.
  • butter, ghee and lard.
  • cream.
  • hard cheeses.
  • cakes and biscuits.
  • food containing coconut or palm oil.

What is a gallbladder headache?

Negative emotions, alcohol, and other abused substances can heat up the liver, and since the liver is in line with the head and the eyes, heat can travel from the gallbladder up its meridian pathway, causing a headache.

How is life after gallbladder removal?

You can lead a perfectly normal life without a gallbladder. Your liver will still make enough bile to digest your food, but instead of being stored in the gallbladder, it drips continuously into your digestive system.

What does a contracted gallbladder feel like?

The gallbladder contracts vigorously against the blockage, causing severe pain in spasms, or sometimes constant pain. Inflamed gallbladder (cholecystitis) Inflammation of the gallbladder can be caused by gallstones, excessive alcohol use, infections, or even tumors that cause bile buildup.