What are Portocaval anastomoses and where do they occur?

Portocaval anastomosis is a surgical procedure by which systematic circulation is diverted from the liver. Normally, the blood coming from the intestines enters the liver via the portal vein, is detoxified and goes out through the hepatic veins to feed the body’s organs.

What are the sites of Portacaval anastomosis?

The site of this anastomosis is the lower oesophagus. The anastomosis between the superior rectal veins, which are portal veins, and the inferior and middle rectal veins, which are systemic veins.

Where does portocaval anastomosis occur?

A portocaval anastomosis or porto-systemic anastomosis is a specific type of anastomosis that occurs between the veins of the portal circulation and those of the systemic circulation. When there is a blockage of the portal system, portocaval anastomosis enables the blood to still reach the systemic venous circulation.

How do I remember portocaval anastomosis?

These dilated collateral veins can be seen in the lower esophagus, anterior abdomen, and lower rectum. It can be memorized by the mnemonic “varices of gut, butt, and caput (medusae).”

What are included in the portal systemic anastomoses?

The major portal-systemic anastomoses include: 1) esophageal branches of left gastric vein with esophageal veins, 2) superior rectal vein with middle and inferior rectal veins, 3) paraumbilical veins with subcutaneous veins of anterior abdominal wall, 4) retroperitoneal veins with venous branches of veins of the colon …

What is esophageal varices bleed?

Esophageal varices develop when normal blood flow to the liver is blocked by a clot or scar tissue in the liver. To go around the blockages, blood flows into smaller blood vessels that aren’t designed to carry large volumes of blood. The vessels can leak blood or even rupture, causing life-threatening bleeding.

What is in the portal triad?

The portal triad contains the extrahepatic segments of the portal vein, hepatic artery, and bile ducts.

What is the difference between systemic and portal circulation?

This circulation of nutrient-rich blood between the gut and liver is called the portal circulation. It enables the liver to remove any harmful substances that may have been digested before the blood enters the main blood circulation around the body—the systemic circulation.

What is the 2nd most common cause of esophageal varices?

Causes of esophageal varices include: Severe liver scarring (cirrhosis). A number of liver diseases — including hepatitis infection, alcoholic liver disease, fatty liver disease and a bile duct disorder called primary biliary cirrhosis — can result in cirrhosis. Blood clot (thrombosis).

What is the number one cause of esophageal varices?

Scarring (cirrhosis) of the liver is the most common cause of esophageal varices. This scarring cuts down on blood flowing through the liver. As a result, more blood flows through the veins of the esophagus. The extra blood flow causes the veins in the esophagus to balloon outward.

What is Calot’s triangle?

Cystohepatic Triangle

Calot described this triangle in 1891 formed by the cystic duct, hepatic duct, and the cystic artery. This triangle has now been modified to the cystohepatic triangle. In reality, it is a space bounded by the cystic duct, hepatic duct, and the inferior surface of the liver.

What is another name for the portal triad?

A portal triad (also known as portal canal, portal field, portal area, or portal tract) is a distinctive arrangement within lobules.

What are the 3 types of circulation differentiate each?

There are three different types of circulation that occur regularly in the body:

  • Pulmonary circulation. This part of the cycle carries oxygen-depleted blood away from the heart, to the lungs, and back to the heart.
  • Systemic circulation.
  • Coronary circulation.

What are the 3 types of circulation in the body?

3 Kinds of Circulation:

  • Systemic circulation.
  • Coronary circulation.
  • Pulmonary circulation.

What is the most severe outcome of esophageal varices?

The most serious complication of esophageal varices is bleeding. Once you’ve had a bleeding episode, your risk of another bleeding episode greatly increases. If you lose enough blood, you can go into shock, which can lead to death.

How long do you live with esophageal varices?

Varices recurred in 78 patients and rebled in 45 of these patients. Median follow-up was 32.3 months (mean, 42.1 months; range, 3–198.9 months). Cumulative overall survival by life-table analysis was 67%, 42%, and 26% at 1, 3, and 5 years, respectively.

What should you not do with esophageal varices?

Avoid alcohol — One of the most important ways to reduce the risk of bleeding from varices is to stop drinking alcohol. Alcohol can worsen cirrhosis, increase the risk of bleeding, and significantly increase the risk of dying.

What is Charcot triangle?

Charcot’s cholangitis triad is the combination of jaundice; fever, usually with rigors; and right upper quadrant abdominal pain. It occurs as a result of ascending cholangitis (an infection of the bile duct in the liver).

What is Hepatocystic triangle?

Hepatocystic triangle (aka Calot’s triangle) is a small (potential) triangular space at the porta hepatis of surgical importance as it is dissected during cholecystectomy. Its contents, the cystic artery and cystic duct must be identified before ligation and division to avoid intraoperative injury.

What are the 3 components of the portal triad?

The hepatic artery proper, common bile duct, and portal vein run through the ligament near its free edge to reach the liver. These three structures are often referred to as the portal triad.

What are the 4 main parts of the circulatory system?

The circulatory system consists of three independent systems that work together: the heart (cardiovascular), lungs (pulmonary), and arteries, veins, coronary and portal vessels (systemic).

What is the pathway of circulation?

Blood comes into the right atrium from the body, moves into the right ventricle and is pushed into the pulmonary arteries in the lungs. After picking up oxygen, the blood travels back to the heart through the pulmonary veins into the left atrium, to the left ventricle and out to the body’s tissues through the aorta.

What are the 4 circulatory systems?

What are the circulatory system parts?

  • Heart, a muscular organ that pumps blood throughout your body.
  • Blood vessels, which include your arteries, veins and capillaries.
  • Blood, made up of red and white blood cells, plasma and platelets.

What is the largest artery in the body?

the aorta
How large is the aorta? The aorta is the largest blood vessel in your body. It’s more than 1 foot long and an inch in diameter at its widest point.

Is esophageal varices curable?

Currently, no treatment can prevent the development of esophageal varices in people with cirrhosis. While beta blocker drugs are effective in preventing bleeding in many people who have esophageal varices, they don’t prevent esophageal varices from forming.