What are naphthenes give an example?
Naphthenes, like paraffins, are saturated compounds. Examples of naphthenes are cyclopentane, cyclohexane, and methylcyclohexane (Figure 3.3).
What is the general formula for naphthenes?
Naphthenes have the general formula CnH2n. These compounds are characterized by having one or more rings of saturated carbon atoms. Naphthenes are an important component of liquid petroleum refinery products. Most of the heavier boiling point complex residues are cycloalkanes.
What is paraffinic hydrocarbon?
paraffin hydrocarbon, also called alkane, any of the saturated hydrocarbons having the general formula CnH2n+2, C being a carbon atom, H a hydrogen atom, and n an integer. The paraffins are major constituents of natural gas and petroleum.
What is paraffin olefin Naphthene aromatics?
The PONA number is an index for oil components. It is used to determine the paraffins (P), olefins (O), naphthenes (N) and aromatics (A) content of FCC (fluid catalytic cracking) and coker (visbreaker) gasoline. The PONA number is significant in determining the quality of naphtha.
What is the main difference between aromatics and naphthenes?
The key difference between naphthenes and aromatics is that the naphthenes have only single bonds between carbon atoms whereas the aromatics have both single bonds and double bonds between carbon atoms. We call naphthenes “cycloalkanes”. These are cyclic aliphatic hydrocarbon compounds.
What are asphaltenes in crude oil?
Asphaltenes are the crude oil component with the highest molecular weight. They are conditionally defined as fractions insoluble in pentane or heptane; their presence in heavy oil provides its high viscosity. Therefore, the removal of asphaltene is one of the most efficient methods for the reduction of oil viscosity.
What is naphthenes in crude oil?
Cycloalkanes (or cycloparaffins), also called naphthenes in the petroleum industry, are saturated hydrocarbons containing structures with carbon atoms linked in a ring. The cycloalkane composition in crude oil worldwide typically varies from 30% to 60% (see also Table 3).
What is the difference between paraffinic and naphthenic?
Paraffinic oil has a high viscosity index which is good for engine oil but bad for transformers. The naphthenic oil will reach a lower viscosity meaning more oil circulation in the transformer and better cooling.
What is paraffinic crude oil?
Paraffinic crude oils are rich in straight-chain and branched paraffin hydrocarbons, whereas naphthenic crude oils contain mainly naphthenic and aromatic hydrocarbons. The composition and classification of many crude oils are obtained by ring analysis and by determination of the other constituents (Sachanen, 1950).
What is the difference between olefins and paraffins?
The key difference between olefins and paraffins is that olefins essentially contain one or more double bonds between carbon atoms, whereas paraffins do not contain any double or triple bond between carbon atoms. Olefin and paraffin are common terms for two different groups of hydrocarbon compounds.
What is Naphthenes in crude oil?
What are asphaltenes made of?
In general, asphaltenes are known as a complex organic matter, containing carbon, oxygen, nitrogen, and sulfur. The black color of some crude oils and residuals is related to the presence of asphaltenes, which have not flocculated or precipitated. Asphaltenes have polar molecules with very high molecular weights.
What is naphthenic oil used for?
Base oils are needed to manufacture products such as greases and industrial lubricants. Naphthenic base oils are particularly suited as metalworking fluids. The main functions of the naphthenic oil in this case are cooling and lubrication, providing a balance between the two.
What are the 4 main types of crude oil?
The Four Main Types of Oil
- Light Distillates. These include, among others, gasoline, kerosene, jet fuel and several varieties of petroleum.
- Middle Distillates. These include the majority of Grade 1 and 2 fuel oils and diesels, along with domestic fuel.
- Medium Oils.
- Heavy Fuel Oils.
Why alkenes are called olefins?
Alkenes are also called Olefins because they form oily liquids on reaction with Chlorine gas.
What are olefins give any two examples?
Olefins are a class of chemicals made up of hydrogen and carbon with one or more pairs of carbon atoms linked by a double bond. Ethylene, propylene and 1,3-butadiene are examples of olefins.
What is asphaltenes in fuel?
Asphaltene is a very high molecular weight complex component in the fuel that increases the fuel viscosity, surface tension, and chemical reaction rate.
Is naphthenic oil mineral oil?
Crude oil is extracted from the bedrock before being processed in several stages, removing natural contaminants and undesirable hydrocarbons. This separation process produces mineral oil, which can in turn be denoted as paraffinic, naphthenic or aromatic.
Who has the highest quality oil?
Tapis. Tapis, a type of crude found only in Malaysia, is considered the best quality oil in the world. Light and sweet, it’s benchmark traded in Singapore and coveted for its remarkably low sulphur content (0.04 percent) and low density of between 43 and 45° API.
What is grade of crude oil?
Crude oil is considered “heavy” if it has long hydrocarbon chains, or “light” if it has short hydrocarbon chains: an API gravity of 34 or higher is “light”, between 31 and 33 is “medium”, and 30 or below is “heavy”.
What are olefins used for?
Olefins are widely used as raw materials in the manufacture of chemical and polymer products like plastic, detergent, adhesive, rubber, and food packaging. They consists of a group of chemicals: ethylene, propylene, and butadiene.
What is olefin structure?
The general olefin chemical structure is represented as >C=C< (Carbon-carbon double bond). The unsaturated carbons in the olefins are sp2 hybridised.
What are called olefins?
olefin, also called alkene, compound made up of hydrogen and carbon that contains one or more pairs of carbon atoms linked by a double bond. Olefins are examples of unsaturated hydrocarbons (compounds that contain only hydrogen and carbon and at least one double or triple bond).
How are asphaltenes formed?
Geochemistry. Asphaltenes are today widely recognised as dispersed, chemically altered fragments of kerogen, which migrated out of the source rock for the oil, during oil catagenesis.
Which country has the purest oil?
The best crude oil in the world is found in Malaysia. “Tapis, the Malaysian crude benchmark traded in Singapore, has for a long time held the title of the world’s most expensive grade.