What is the intraosseous line used for?

Intraosseous infusion (IO) is used in pediatric populations during anesthesia when other intravenous access, central venous catherization or venous cutdown, are difficult to use or cannot be used. When individuals are severely ill and are in need of “rapid, efficient, and safe delivery of drugs”, IO is used.

Where can an intraosseous line be placed?

Sternum, clavicle, humeral head, iliac crest, distal femur, proximal tibia, distal tibia, and calcaneus are all potential sites for intraosseous access. The proximal tibia, humeral head, and sternum are the preferred sites in adults.

What is an intraosseous catheter?

Intraosseous (IO) cannulation is a rapid and safe method to establish vascular access in a critically ill or injured patient when peripheral or central venous access is difficult or delayed.

What is the difference between an intravenous line and an intraosseous line?

Intraosseous (IO) parenteral access is relatively fast and easy to obtain, whereas intravenous (IV) access can be difficult. IO access is currently recommended as an option for patients with out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) when IV access cannot be immediately obtained.

Can nurses insert intraosseous?

RN’s, physicians or EMT-P’s may insert an IO device after they have completed instruction with clinical supervision. An order must be received to by a physician for a RN or EMT-P to insert an IO.

Is an intraosseous line painful?

The procedure is both safe and effective in children and adults. IO access can be extremely painful. However, the patient’s pain level can be reduced to a bearable level by injecting 2% preservative-free lidocaine through a special port before starting the infusion.

How long does intraosseous last?

The intraosseous needle may remain in situ for 72 to 96 hours, but it is best removed within 6 to 12 hours, as soon as an alternative site of intravascular access has been established. The intraosseous route provides fast and reliable vascular access in emergency medical situations.

How are intraosseous catheters removed?

Intraosseous Access – Line Removal – YouTube

How painful is an IO line?

7 Extreme Pain: Although IO insertion looks painful, when inserted with a drill device, it is reported to be no more painful than an insertion of an 18g IV cathlon. There have been reports of increased pain with high-pressure infusions in conscious patients related to stimulation of pressure sensors within the bone.

What drugs can be given via intraosseous route?

While all resuscitation drugs can be given by the IO route, administration of ceftriaxone, chloramphenicol, phenytoin, tobramycin, and vancomycin may result in lower peak serum concentrations. The most common adverse effect seen with IO use, extravasation, has been reported in 12% of patients.

What is the complications of intraosseous access?

The most commonly reported complications of IO access are infection at the injection site, which may result in severe osteomyelitis, damage to the growth plate, and fat embolism, 2 which have been reported in adults.

How painful is an IO?

Can nurses remove intraosseous?

It is the position of the Infusion Nurses Society that a qualified RN, who is proficient in infusion therapy and who has been appropriately trained for the procedure, may insert, maintain, and remove intraosseous access devices.

Do intraosseous injections hurt?

What drugs are given intraosseous?

While all resuscitation drugs can be given by the IO route, administration of ceftriaxone, chloramphenicol, phenytoin, tobramycin, and vancomycin may result in lower peak serum concentrations.

How do you remove an intraosseous line?

When should Io be removed?

24 hours

Removal and Aftercare
IO access should not be used for greater than 24 hours. Alternative intravenous access should be obtained as soon as possible. IO should be removed once alternative intravenous access is established or signs of infection, extravasation or compartment syndrome.