What are macrovascular complications?

Generally, the injurious effects of hyperglycemia are separated into macrovascular complications (coronary artery disease, peripheral arterial disease, and stroke) and microvascular complications (diabetic nephropathy,neuropathy, and retinopathy).

What are the macrovascular complications of uncontrolled diabetes?

Macrovascular complications of diabetes are primarily diseases of the coronary arteries, peripheral arteries, and cerebrovasculature. Early macrovascular disease is associated with atherosclerotic plaque in the vasculature supplying blood to the heart, brain, limbs, and other organs.

What is macrovascular disease?

Macrovascular disease: Disease of the large blood vessels, including the coronary arteries, the aorta, and the sizable arteries in the brain and in the limbs.

What is a microvascular complication?

It is a microvascular complication of diabetes mellitus associated with pain, numbness, and dysfunction of motor and autonomic nervous system, which seriously affects the quality of life of the patients.

What is micro and macrovascular?

Diabetic microvascular (involving small vessels, such as capillaries) and macrovascular (involving large vessels, such as arteries and veins) complications have similar etiologic characteristics.

Is heart failure a macrovascular complication?

Macrovascular complications, such as coronary heart disease (CHD), heart failure (HF) and peripheral arterial disease (PAD), are frequent both in diabetic and hypertensive patients.

What is the most common microvascular complication of diabetes?

Diabetic retinopathy (DR) is a microvascular complication that can affect the peripheral retina, the macula, or both and is a leading cause of visual disability and blindness in people with diabetes.

How is macrovascular disease treated?

Macrovascular complication (cardiovascular, cerebrovascular, peripheral vascular) can be prevented with some intervention strategies eg, discouraging smoking habit, proper diet, regular physical activity, strict glycaemic and blood pressure control, lowering low density lipoprotein cholesterol level and aspirin therapy …

What is the difference between macrovascular and microvascular?

What causes microvascular disease?

Experts think that the causes of small vessel disease are the same as the causes for diseases affecting the larger vessels of the heart, such as high blood pressure, high cholesterol, obesity and diabetes.

How is microvascular disease diagnosed?

Your doctor or other health care professional will diagnose coronary MVD based on your medical history, a physical exam and test results. You will also be evaluated for any risk factors for heart disease including high cholesterol, metabolic syndrome, diabetes and being overweight or obese.

Why do microvascular complications occur?

Microvascular disease tends to occur predominantly in tissues where glucose uptake is independent of insulin activity (eg kidney, retina and vascular endothelium) because these tissues are exposed to glucose levels that correlate very closely with blood glucose levels.

What is the meaning of microvascular?

Definition of microvascular

: of, relating to, or constituting the part of the circulatory system made up of minute vessels (such as venules or capillaries) that average less than 0.3 millimeters in diameter.

What are the prevention strategies for macrovascular disease?

What causes diabetic microvascular disease?

Mechanisms for microvascular disease in diabetes include the pathologic effects of AGE accumulation, overproduction of endothelial growth factors, and abnormal stimulation of the PKC and polyol pathways and the RAS.

Is neuropathy a microvascular disease?

Classic microvascular pathologies include retinopathy, nephropathy, and neuropathy, but brain, myocardium, skin, and other tissues are also affected.

How do you prevent macrovascular disease?

How does macrovascular disease arise?

It is a disease of the large blood vessels, including the coronary arteries, the aorta, and the sizable arteries in the brain and in the limbs. This sometimes occurs when a person has had diabetes for an extended period of time. Fat and blood clots build up in the large blood vessels and stick to the vessel walls.

How do you test for microvascular disease?

The most commonly used tests to look for coronary microvascular dysfunction include invasive functional coronary angiography, cardiac magnetic resonance imaging, or positron emission tomography (PET). The latter 2 types of imaging studies are noninvasive (they do not require any instruments in the body).

What is a diabetic foot?

Foot problems are common in people with diabetes. They can happen over time when high blood sugar damages the nerves and blood vessels in the feet. The nerve damage, called diabetic neuropathy, can cause numbness, tingling, pain, or a loss of feeling in your feet.

Can microvascular disease be cured?

Small vessel disease is treatable but may be difficult to detect. The condition is typically diagnosed after a health care provider finds little or no narrowing in the main arteries of the heart despite the presence of symptoms that suggest heart disease.

Can stress cause microvascular disease?

Understand your risk for coronary microvascular disease
Low estrogen levels before menopause can raise younger women’s risk for coronary MVD and can be caused by stress and a functioning problem with the ovaries.

What are the signs and symptoms of microvascular disease?


  • Chest pain, squeezing or discomfort (angina), which may get worse with activity or emotional stress.
  • Discomfort in the left arm, jaw, neck, back or abdomen along with chest pain.
  • Shortness of breath.
  • Tiredness and lack of energy.

Can microvascular disease be reversed?

Can microvascular ischemic disease be reversed? It may be possible to reverse some of the brain changes in the early stage of microvascular ischemic disease. But they tend to worsen and become irreversible during the normal course of the disease.

How can you prevent microvascular and macrovascular disease?