What additive is used to help reduce the viscosity of synovial fluid in order to perform a cell count?

One or two drops of a 150-U/mL solution of hyaluronidase are added to a small aliquot of the synovial fluid. Within a few minutes, the fluid viscosity diminishes and the cells can be counted.

How do you test viscosity of synovial fluid?

A convenient and accurate way to measure the relative viscosity of synovial fluid is to use a white blood cell diluting pipette as a simple viscometer. The technique is reproducible with 2% accuracy and adds little to the time required for routine synovial fluid analysis.

What does hyaluronidase do to synovial?

Hyaluronan forms dense mesh networks in the synovial fluid, which make the fluid viscous. Due to this viscosity, handling synovial fluid in a laboratory setting is challenging. To overcome this problem, synovial fluid can be treated with hyaluronidase, which breaks down the dense mesh network of hyaluronan fibers.

Which among the following is the recommended diluting fluid for synovial fluid cell counts?

Saline should be used as the diluent for synovial fluid rather than the dilute acetic acid that is sometimes used as a diluent for blood.

How do you extract synovial fluid?

Synovial fluid analysis procedure

  1. numb the area around the affected joint using a local anesthetic injection or a numbing spray.
  2. insert a needle and syringe into the joint between the two bones.
  3. draw out a small sample of synovial fluid through the syringe and deposit it into a container.

What color is synovial fluid in rheumatoid arthritis?

Synovial fluid is normally a thick, straw-colored liquid found in small amounts in joints. After the skin around the joint is cleaned, the health care provider inserts a sterile needle through the skin and into the joint space.

What is string test of synovial fluid?

In arthritis, the viscosity of synovial fluid is decreased because of decreased production and polymerization of hyaluronic acid. Viscosity can be empirically evaluated by forming a string of synovial fluid between the tips of the fingers. A string of 4-6 cm is considered normal.

What is the normal volume of synovial fluid?

This known relationship can be used to estimate intra-articular synovial fluid volume in normal joints and those with chronic arthritides. Most of the joint volumes we calculated fell within the previously reported range for normal knees of 0.5 ml to 4.0 mls.

What Colour is synovial fluid?

Is hyaluronic acid the same as synovial fluid?

Synovial fluid is a combination of a filtrate of plasma that enters the joint space from the subsynovial capillaries and hyaluronic acid, which is secreted by the synoviocytes. Hyaluronic acid provides the high viscosity of synovial fluid and, with water, its lubricating properties.

Which chemical test is most frequently performed on synovial fluid?

WBC count is one the most frequent tests performed on synovial fluid. Normally, synovial fluid contains less than 200 cells/µL. This count increases significantly in infections and inflammation. Gram stain and culture can be used for differential diagnosis.

What diluting fluid is most commonly used when performing WBC count?

Normal saline should be used to make dilutions for total cell counts. Diluting fluids for WBC counts include: crystal violet/acetic acid. gentian violet/acetic acid.

How is fluid removed from the body?

Fluid can build up inside the body for many reasons. Small amounts of fluid can be drawn off using a needle and syringe. This is called aspiration. Larger amounts or thicker liquid will need to be drained over a period of time using a thin plastic tube.

What tests are done for synovial fluid?

Your synovial fluid will be collected in a procedure called arthrocentesis, also known as joint aspiration. During the procedure: A health care provider will clean the skin on and around the affected joint.

What does gout fluid look like?

Slightly cloudy fluid may be caused by inflammation, gout, or pseudogout. A deep, dark red color may be caused by bleeding in the joint. Milky white may be caused by infection or inflammation or a condition such as gout.

How do I get rid of fluid in my joints?

How is it treated? Your doctor may suggest rest, ice, and raising the joint (elevation) to help with pain and swelling. The fluid might be drained from the area. Your doctor may suggest using non-prescription anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) or getting a steroid shot.

What color is normal synovial fluid?

What does it mean if synovial fluid is yellow?

Normal synovial fluid is clear in color, transparent in clarity, and highly viscous. Therefore, fluid that is yellow/green, opaque, and very thin is more likely to represent a septic joint.

What foods increase synovial fluid?

Dietary Changes That Increase Synovial Fluid

  • Dark, leafy vegetables.
  • Omega-3 fatty acids (found in salmon, mackerel, and flaxseeds)
  • Curcumin (a compound found in the spice turmeric )
  • High antioxidant foods (onions, garlic, green tea, and berries)
  • Nuts and seeds.

What does infected synovial fluid look like?

Normal synovial fluid is clear and colorless or straw-colored. Abnormal fluid may look cloudy, opaque, and/or differently colored. For example, cloudy fluid may indicate an infection, and pink or reddish fluid may indicate the presence of blood.

Does taking hyaluronic acid orally work for joints?

Taking hyaluronic acid by mouth can have many benefits. These include reducing arthritis pain, improving skin health and more.

How can I increase my synovial fluid naturally?

Dietary Changes That Increase Synovial Fluid

  1. Dark, leafy vegetables.
  2. Omega-3 fatty acids (found in salmon, mackerel, and flaxseeds)
  3. Curcumin (a compound found in the spice turmeric )
  4. High antioxidant foods (onions, garlic, green tea, and berries)
  5. Nuts and seeds.

What is the most likely method to obtain a sample of synovial fluid for analysis?

Your synovial fluid will be collected in a procedure called arthrocentesis, also known as joint aspiration.

How do you make hayem’s fluid?


  1. Mercuric chloride – 0.25 gm.
  2. Sodium sulphate – 2.50 gm.
  3. Sodium chloride – 0.50 gm.
  4. Distilled water – 100.0ml.
  5. Final pH ( at 25°C) – 5.9±0.1.

Which diluent is good for RBC and platelet counting?

Fluids used as diluents must be isotonic, and have a high specific gravity which prevents the cells from setting too quikly. Perpare dilutions for red cell counting by taking 0.02 ml of blood and washing it into 4ml of diluting fluid (R1) contained in a suitable container (this gives a 1 in 200 dilution).