How does DKA cause polyuria?

Polyuria in diabetes occurs when you have excess levels of sugar in the blood. Normally, when your kidneys create urine, they reabsorb all of the sugar and direct it back to the bloodstream. With type 1 diabetes, excess glucose ends up in the urine, where it pulls more water and results in more urine.

How does DKA cause cellular dehydration?

As an excessive amount of glucose enters the renal tubules, it draws a large amount of water that ends up producing a significant amount of urine. This is known as osmotic diuresis and leads to volume depletion and dehydration in the patient.

How does DKA cause Polydipsia?

In people with diabetes, polydipsia is caused by increased blood glucose levels. When blood glucose levels get high, your kidneys produce more urine in an effort to remove the extra glucose from your body. Meanwhile, because your body is losing fluids, your brain tells you to drink more in order to replace them.

Why does DKA cause fluid volume deficit?

The major cause of water deficit in DKA and HHS is glucose-mediated osmotic diuresis, which leads to loss of water in excess of electrolytes (97). Despite the excessive water loss, the admission serum sodium tends to be low.

What are the 3 P’s in diabetic ketoacidosis?

The three Ps of DKA:

Polydipsia—thirst. Polyuria—urination. Polyphagia—appetite.

How osmotic diuresis occurs in DKA?

Osmotic diuresis is increased urination due to the presence of certain substances in the fluid filtered by the kidneys. This fluid eventually becomes urine. The process of osmosis created by these substances cause additional water to come into the urine, increasing its amount.

Why does DKA cause dehydration and subsequently electrolyte losses?

Acetone derived from the metabolism of acetoacetic acid accumulates in serum and is slowly disposed of by respiration. Hyperglycemia due to insulin deficiency causes an osmotic diuresis that leads to marked urinary losses of water and electrolytes.

What is the physiological process in diabetic ketoacidosis?

DKA is caused by a lack of insulin in the body, which results in the body breaking down fat for energy. Ketones are released into the body as the fat is broken down. If you have diabetes, certain things can make this more likely to happen, including: having an infection, such as flu or a urinary tract infection (UTI)

Why is there polyuria and polydipsia in diabetes?

Polydipsia or increased thirst is due to high blood glucose that raises the osmolarity of blood and makes it more concentrated. Polyuria or increased frequency of urination is due to excess fluid intake and glucose-induced urination. Weight loss occurs due to loss of calories in urine.

What happens to electrolytes during DKA?

During diabetic ketoacidosis, there may be rapid shifts in the plasma concentration of potassium ions. Although diabetic ketoacidosis leads to a deficit in total-body stores of potassium ion, the plasma concentration is usually normal or elevated, since the acidemia leads to the exit of potassium ions from cells.

What fluid and electrolyte imbalances occur in DKA?

Typical overall electrolyte loss includes 200-500 mEq/L of potassium, 300-700 mEq/L of sodium, and 350-500 mEq/L of chloride. The combined effects of serum hyperosmolarity, dehydration, and acidosis result in increased osmolarity in brain cells that clinically manifests as an alteration in the level of consciousness.

What is the most common complication of DKA?

Hypoglycemia is the most common complication of diabetic ketoacidosis while being treated, occurring in an estimated 5–25% of patients with DKA. [37] Acute adverse outcomes of hypoglycemia include seizures, arrhythmias, and cardiovascular events. Hourly blood sugar monitoring is needed in the acute phase of treatment.

What does polyuria indicate?

If you have a condition called polyuria, it’s because your body makes more pee than normal. Adults usually make about 3 liters of urine per day. But with polyuria, you could make up to 15 liters per day. It’s a classic sign of diabetes.

What is the difference between an osmotic diuresis and a water diuresis?

During osmotic diuresis, urine osmolality approaches plasma osmolality. The term water diuresis refers to increased urine flow caused by decreased reabsorption of solute-free water in the collecting ducts (e.g., polyuria associated with psychogenic polydipsia or diabetes insipidus).

Why does hyperglycemia cause osmotic diuresis?

Osmotic diuresis is caused by an excess of urinary solute, typically nonreabsorbable, that induces polyuria and hypotonic fluid loss. Osmotic diuresis can result from hyperglycemia (i.e., diabetic ketoacidosis), use of mannitol, increased serum urea, or administration of other hypertonic therapies.

What fluid and electrolyte disturbances commonly occur in DKA?

Hyperglycemia, osmotic diuresis, serum hyperosmolarity, and metabolic acidosis result in severe electrolyte disturbances. The most characteristic disturbance is total body potassium loss.

What electrolytes are excreted during diabetic ketoacidosis?

Typical overall electrolyte loss includes 200-500 mEq/L of potassium, 300-700 mEq/L of sodium, and 350-500 mEq/L of chloride.

What causes increased thirst and urination in diabetes?

Excessive thirst is one of the first signs you might have diabetes. Thirst and having to urinate more frequently than your baseline are caused by too much sugar (glucose) in your blood. When you have diabetes, your body can’t use sugars from food properly. This causes sugar to collect in your blood.

What happens to sodium and potassium in DKA?

Potassium levels can fluctuate severely during the treatment of DKA, because insulin decreases potassium levels in the blood by redistributing it into cells via increased sodium-potassium pump activity. A large part of the shifted extracellular potassium would have been lost in urine because of osmotic diuresis.

Which electrolyte is most affected when the patient is in DKA?

Loss of Potassium During Episode of DKA
First entity to get disturbed by the lack of insulin is electrolytes among which, potassium is most affected (6, 7).

What are 4 potential complications from deteriorating DKA?

DKA can cause complications, such as:

  • Low levels of potassium (hypokalemia)
  • Swelling inside the brain (cerebral edema)
  • Fluid inside your lungs (pulmonary edema)
  • Damage to your kidney or other organs from your fluid loss.

Can dehydration cause polyuria?

Dehydration due to not drinking enough water is also a common cause of polydipsia. You can feel this whether or not you’ve been sweating or urinating a lot. Polyuria, a condition in which you pass abnormally large amounts of urine, can also cause polydipsia.

What is the most common cause of polyuria?

Key Points. Use of diuretics and uncontrolled diabetes mellitus are common causes of polyuria. In the absence of diabetes mellitus and diuretic use, the most common causes of chronic polyuria are primary polydipsia, central diabetes insipidus, and nephrogenic diabetes insipidus.

Does hyperglycemia cause osmotic diuresis?

The hyperglycemia of diabetes mellitus causes an osmotic diuresis, leading to large deficits of water, sodium and potassium during acute loss of control, e.g., diabetic ketoacidosis. An osmotic diuresis may also result from excessive urea production owing to excessive protein administration.

Which electrolyte imbalance is associated with diabetic ketoacidosis?